Mastering the Strategy Pattern in Angular

The Strategy Pattern is a design pattern that is commonly used in Angular applications. In the context of Angular, the Strategy Pattern is often used to define a family of algorithms and encapsulate each one as a separate class. This allows the algorithms to be selected at runtime based on the application's needs.

In Angular, the Strategy Pattern is commonly used in conjunction with the dependency injection system to allow for easy switching between different implementations of a particular behavior. This is often useful in scenarios where there are multiple ways to implement a particular feature, and the application needs to be able to switch between them dynamically.

To implement the Strategy Pattern in Angular, you would typically create an interface or abstract class that defines the behavior you want to implement. You would then create separate classes that implement this interface or inherit from the abstract class, with each class representing a different algorithm or approach to the behavior.

Finally, you would use the dependency injection system to inject the appropriate strategy class into your application at runtime, based on the specific needs of your application. This allows you to easily switch between different strategies without having to modify your code.

Implementation of the Strategy Pattern

First, let's define an interface that describes the behavior we want to implement:

export interface ProductSortingStrategy {
  sort(products: Product[]): Product[];

This interface defines a sort method that takes an array of Product objects and returns a sorted array of Product objects.

Next, let's create some classes that implement this interface. We'll create three classes, one that sorts the products by name, another that sorts them by price, and another that sorts them by rating:

export class NameSortingStrategy implements ProductSortingStrategy {
  sort(products: Product[]): Product[] {
    return products.sort((a, b) =>;

export class PriceSortingStrategy implements ProductSortingStrategy {
  sort(products: Product[]): Product[] {
    return products.sort((a, b) => a.price - b.price);

export class RatingSortingStrategy implements ProductSortingStrategy {
  sort(products: Product[]): Product[] {
    return products.sort((a, b) => b.rating - a.rating);

These classes implement the ProductSortingStrategy interface and provide their own implementation of the sort method based on the sorting criteria.

Now let's create an Angular service that uses these classes:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { Product } from './product.model';
import { ProductSortingStrategy, NameSortingStrategy } from './product-sorting.strategy';

  providedIn: 'root'
export class ProductService {
  private sortingStrategy: ProductSortingStrategy;

  constructor() {
    // By default, use the name sorting strategy
    this.sortingStrategy = new NameSortingStrategy();

  setSortingStrategy(sortingStrategy: ProductSortingStrategy): void {
    this.sortingStrategy = sortingStrategy;

  getProducts(): Product[] {
    // Retrieve the products from the backend
    const products = [
      { id: 1, name: 'Product A', price: 10, rating: 4 },
      { id: 2, name: 'Product B', price: 5, rating: 3 },
      { id: 3, name: 'Product C', price: 20, rating: 5 },
      { id: 4, name: 'Product D', price: 15, rating: 2 },
      { id: 5, name: 'Product E', price: 8, rating: 4 }

    // Sort the products using the current strategy
    return this.sortingStrategy.sort(products);

This service has a private sortingStrategy property that is initially set to an instance of the NameSortingStrategy. The setSortingStrategy method allows the strategy to be changed at runtime. The getProducts method retrieves the products from the backend and returns them sorted using the currently selected strategy.

Now let's use this service in a component:

import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { ProductService, NameSortingStrategy, PriceSortingStrategy, RatingSortingStrategy } from './product.service';
import { Product } from './product.model';

  selector: 'app-product-list',
  template: `
    <button (click)="sortByName()">Sort by Name</button>
    <button (click)="sortByPrice()">Sort by Price</button>
    <button (click)="sortByRating()">Sort by Rating</button>

The pros of using the Strategy Design Pattern

The Strategy Pattern has several advantages and disadvantages, however some of the pros can be seen below:

Encapsulates algorithms

The Strategy Pattern encapsulates an algorithm in a separate class, making it easier to maintain and modify without affecting other parts of the code.

Increases flexibility

By using the Strategy Pattern, you can easily switch between different algorithms or strategies at runtime, making your application more flexible and adaptable to changing requirements.

Promotes code reuse

Since each strategy is implemented as a separate class, they can be reused in other parts of the application or even in other projects.

Separates concerns

The Strategy Pattern separates the code for implementing the algorithm from the code that uses the algorithm, promoting better code organization and separation of concerns.

The cons of using the Strategy Design Pattern

Requires additional classes

Using the Strategy Pattern can lead to an increase in the number of classes, which can make the code more complex and harder to understand.

May increase complexity

Depending on the number of strategies and their complexity, using the Strategy Pattern can increase the complexity of the code, making it harder to maintain.


The Strategy Pattern introduces some overhead due to the need to create and manage multiple objects, which can impact performance if not properly optimized.

In summary, the strategy pattern is a design pattern that enables you to encapsulate interchangeable algorithms in separate classes, making them easier to maintain and modify. It also promotes code reuse and supports the open-closed principle. However, it can increase the complexity of the code and introduce extra classes and interfaces. The strategy pattern is a powerful tool that should be used judiciously in the appropriate context.